Ubuntu at a glance: features of the system and its releases
Windows operating systems have gained popularity mainly due to the introduction of the "window system". At that time (it was still the 90s of the last century) there was some stratification into "ordinary users" and "administrators" - those who do not delve into the essence of the processes and just use programs, and those who know how to work with console commands.
At that point, Linux "automatically" fell into the "admin" category. Although the platform was initially more stable and protected from computer viruses. But the situation changed radically with the advent of the "windowed" version of Linux, and even completely free.
Today I will tell you about the most famous Linux distribution - Ubuntu, recognized by many as a revolutionary solution.
The beginning of the Ubuntu history
The Ubuntu operating system was officially released in 2004. From the first days of the release, there were heated debates about it. Its commercial cousins SUSE and Red Hat were released back in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A free version of Linux with a graphical, windowed interface seemed pointless.
- Development was originally planned as a temporary fork from Debian.
- Initially, the project was called No-Name-Yet, which means “there is no name yet”.
- Ubuntu packages are still based on the unstable Debian package group.
- Recent developments may be incompatible with the "original".
The product was initially positioned as a system for ordinary users. This mainly determined its success in the market. In addition, Ubuntu is easy to install on almost any hardware, which began to stimulate the use of the system on computers supplied with FreeDOS (in fact, without a system, but much cheaper).
This article explores some of the benefits that keep Ubuntu out of competition. And this despite the constant development of the Windows platform. The operating system is becoming more friendly and simple.
The path to popularity
The Ubuntu operating system attracts immediately, from the moment of installation. During installation, the program asks just a few questions, and after a few minutes the computer is ready for use. At the same time, the "Start" menu will have a good set of office and multimedia applications. Distribution CDs were distributed free of charge - install whatever you want, wherever you go. In addition, LiveCDs on Ubuntu have become a great solution for reanimating computers.
Part of the development was helped by the emphasis on creating modules using only Python. This made it possible to quickly create new modules, extensions with perfect compatibility. At the same time, this approach simplified the creation of a community where independent developers lay out various utilities, modify them after others, and pick up abandoned projects.
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The official forum covers literally all areas: from installing and updating the system to connecting hardware, virtualization and emulation of other platforms. There is a separate section for testers of new releases of the operating system. The official Ubuntu website also has a ton of information about automation.
Differences in Ubuntu releases
Free access to the original year stimulated the emergence of "narrow-cut" releases, which, although based on the official, but have a fairly limited use. For example, in China, they use Ubuntu Kylin. The version was released in 2014 and is specially adapted for the language and other peculiarities of the country.
- Edubuntu is an educational release.
- Ubuntu GNOME is an operating system with an integrated GNOME environment.
- Kubuntu is a desktop variant replaced by KDE Plasma.
- Lubuntu - uses the LXDE environment popular on POSIX systems.
- Mythbuntu is a home theater release with MythTV functionality.
Modifications of Ubuntu Studio, Xubuntu, Ubuntu Mate are also in progress. All editions have their own communities that help develop them. The efforts of a huge number of users go to the development of a single, free direction.
Support is also partly split by release. For example, Ubuntu Mate users visit a separate site - ubuntu-mate.org. There is an official instruction about the system, a list of known problems and ways to solve them. The same applies to other releases. In general, users get information from https://help.ubuntu.com/.
It is important to consider:
- Each current release has a limited time support.
- This is the official public help from the developer.
- It remains possible to work with unofficial packages.
Ubuntu is actually a collection of a once-created kernel and custom packages that any programmer can develop. This approach allows you to stay with the "old" version, guaranteed to be compatible with the used hardware and application programs.
Working releases and further development
New versions of the Ubuntu operating system are released every six months - in April and October. The developer chose this period specifically to be released after the release of GNOME releases, because then the latest version of the shell will be integrated into Ubuntu itself. Regular versions after publication are supported for 9 months, LTS versions up to 5 years.
Latest valid releases:
- Impish Indri - 14.10.2021, index 21.10.
- Hirsute Hippo - 21.04.2021, index 21.04.
- Groovy Gorilla - 22.10.2020, index 20.10.
- Focal Fossa - 26.08.2021, index 20.04
The plans for 2022 are the release of the release with the 22.xx index. New versions will also receive unique names, as this is a peculiar feature of Linux developers. Versions older than 19.xx are not officially supported and are considered obsolete, although they work successfully on thousands of computers. Unlike Windows and similar systems, no one is forcibly encouraging updates.
The operating system Ubuntu has firmly occupied a certain niche in the market for PC platforms, both in desktop and mobile versions. It will perfectly replace Windows on a laptop with FreeDOS or become the basis of an office computer. A lot of programs have been written for it, replacing Word, Excel, archivers and even graphic editors.
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